Few notes on locale craziness

Back in the EAPI 6 guide I shortly noted that we have added a sanitization requirement for locales. Having been informed of another locale issue in Python (pre-EAPI 6 ebuild), I have decided to write a short note of locale curiosities that could also serve in reporting issues upstream.

When l10n and i18n are concerned, most of the developers correctly predict that the date and time format, currencies, number formats are going to change. It’s rather hard to find an application that would fail because of changed system date format; however, much easier to find one that does not respect the locale and uses hard-coded format strings for user display. You can find applications that unconditionally use a specific decimal separator but it’s quite rare to find one that chokes itself combining code using hard-coded separator and system routines respecting locales. Some applications rely on English error messages but that’s rather obviously perceived as mistake. However, there are also two hard cases…

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Common filesystem I/O pitfalls

Filesystem I/O is one of the key elements of the standard library in many programming languages. Most of them derive it from the interfaces provided by the standard C library, potentially wrapped in some portability and/or OO sugar. Most of them share an impressive set of pitfalls for careless programmers.

In this article, I would like to shortly go over a few more or less common pitfalls that come to my mind.

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A quick note on portable shebangs

While at first shebangs may seem pretty obvious and well supported, there is a number of not-so-well-known portability issues affecting them. Only during my recent development work, I have hit more than one of them. For this reason, I’d like to write a quick note summarizing how to stay on the safe side and keep your scripts working across various systems.

Please note I will only cover the basic solution to the most important portability issues. If you’d like to know more about shebang handling in various systems, I’d like to recommend you an excellent article ‘The #! magic, details about the shebang/hash-bang mechanism on various Unix flavours’ by Sven Mascheck.

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A few words on the topic of optimization

Optimization is a very broad topic when referring to compiled languages like C or C++. There are many good guides on that topic. However, I see that people nevertheless forget about a few basic principles; thus I’d like to write a few short words myself, explaining how to avoid common pitfalls when optimizing or at least trying to.

First of all, I’d like to notice that I will be considering optimization as targeted towards making the program execution time shorter through use of faster code (algorithms, methods). I will not cover the area in detail but just give a few tips or remainders which should be taken into account when optimizing.

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The impact of C++ templates on library ABI

Author: Michał Górny
Date: 20 Aug 2012
Copyright: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Source: http://dev.gentoo.org/~mgorny/articles/the-impact-of-cxx-templates-on-library-abi.rst

Preamble

The general aspect of maintaining binary compatibility of C++ library interfaces has been already covered thoroughly multiple times. A good reference of articles on the topic can be found on wiki page of ABI compliance checker tool [1]. Sadly, those articles usually consider the topic of C++ templates only briefly, if at all.

While in fact the topic is fairly complex, and I believe that considering the overall usefulness and popularity of the templates, it should be considered more thoroughly. Thus, in this article I will try to address the issues arising from use of templates, methods of dealing with them and trying to prevent them.

Both the overall topic of templates in respect to the programming techniques, and the wide topic of ABI are already explained in detail in many other articles and guides. Moreover, I believe that myself I am not fluent enough to be able to cover those topics in detail here. Thus, I will assume that a reader of this article is already familiar with both the general topic of templates in C++, and the basic aspects of an ABI and its compatibility.

Moreover, in the solutions and problems listed here I will assume that a particular toolchain in question does conform to the C++98 standard, and is able to properly support templates with regard to multiple instantiations.

[1] http://ispras.linuxbase.org/index.php/ABI_compliance_checker#Articles

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